American Goldfinch, these little birds go through a significant change in plumage as the seasons change and its mating and nesting habits begin.
Goldfinches indeed molt twice a year where most birds molt once in the fall and this can cause problems for novice birders, as they wonder where their yellow birds went.
Feeding goldfinches year round will give you a chance to witness this change will give as the males change to a brilliant yellow color in late winter and early spring.
The reverse takes place in late summer and early Autumn.
Choosing a good feeder will help keep the cost of nyjer to a minimum.
About 5 inches in size, the male winter colors a yellowish brown(almost drab olive green)
with light yellow on the face and chin, wings black with white bars.
In late winter/early spring he begins to molt and has the looks of a patchy quilt.
when he is done, he will be a bright yellow with black wings and white wing bars. He will be dressed with a distinctive black cap.
The female goldfinch is yellowish green with black wings and tail during summer, changing to a grayish brown with very little yellow and dark brown wings with white wing bars in winter.
Attracting American goldfinches to your backyard in winter can be as easy as placing a feeder filled with nyjer seed or hulled sunflower seed.
Be sure to keep your feeder stocked well into spring so that you can see the bright yellow of the male.
Long before the nesting season, the mating habits of the American Goldfinch begin. Usually there are several males vying for one female.
While there are short flutter flights high in the air between males, the most common behavior includes males chasing after the female. Several male birds may chase the female for twenty minutes or more over a large area.
Actual mating doesn't occur until late summer, generally late July through early September.
In the meantime these birds remain relatively quiet.
American Goldfinch Nesting Habits:
In the western range the American Goldfinch may nest as early as May or June. Typically, in the East, these birds don't begin nesting until August.
As late summer approaches, these seed eating birds can count on a plentiful supply of thistle seed to feed their young.
The American Goldfinch prefers an open habitat with some shrubs and trees and are likely found on farms and in backyard gardens.
The nest is made of strands from weeds and vines. Downy filaments such as the thistle disperses and caterpillar webbing are used to weave the cup shaped nest. The nest can be so tightly woven as to hold water (often eggs rot and babies drown after a heavy rain).
Once the nest is built, both male and female goldfinches leave the area. This may give the appearance that they have abandoned the nest. In a few days they both return and the female begins laying eggs.
In some cases this can be two weeks after nest completion.
The nest is located 4 to 20 feet above ground in a shrub or tree. The female lays from 3 to 7 light blue eggs which are incubated for 12 to 14 days.
The female may spend ninety five percent of her time incubating the eggs. The male will feed her during this time allowing her to stay on the nest.
The young birds leave the nest in about 11 to 15 days after hatching.
The female goldfinch builds the nest by herself. A second nest may be built by her while the male continues to feed the first broods fledglings. 2 broods may be raised each season.
Goldfinches are 99.9% seed eaters
These birds are easily attracted to bird feeders all year by supplying nyjer/thistle sunflower seed for them to eat.
Specially designed thistle feeders are required, as nyjer seed is tiny.
When feeding their young, the parents fill their crops with seeds and maybe small aphids or caterpillars and regurgitate them part by part to the young birds.
This method allows them to feed each of the young birds each time they visit the nest.
In winter, the American Goldfinch form flocks and feed together with little aggression towards each other.
If you plant sunflowers, cosmos, coneflowers and other seed producing flowers and your late summer yard will be filled with the flits and sounds of juvenile goldfinches begging to be fed.
Lifespan in the wild averages 3 - 6 years. Maximum Recorded - 11 years.