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Is There Really Global Warming?
February 16, 2009
Akita really thinks she owns the place.
All 8 pounds of her.
How ironic that this week a warm spell came and melted all the snow, but a few inches fell Friday night to give me a bit of salvation for the "Great Backyard bird Count".
A few inches of snow works wonders at times.
We've hit the 100" mark for snow in my area. By the end of winter we will have had the second snowiest winter on record. Last year currently ranks second in snow fall.
I realize 100" isn't a lot for some of you, but for most of us, it is more than enough. The Folks in Michigan's upper peninsula, along Lake Superior have a mild winter if snow is less than 200" . Some parts can exceed 300" almost yearly.
Now that is a lot of winter for anyone I would think.
I'm bringing up snow, weather and climate for a reason.
Though it may not directly relate to "Gardening for Wildlife," it relates to our every day life.
It does relate to gardening and our activities, howerver.
We intently watch weather reports,
Sometimes plan our days around the weather.
You can strike up a conversation with a total stranger, just by talking weather.
I'm not totally sure how to broach this topic.
There have been weeks of serious cogitating on my part and hours spent on research.
Weather and global warming aren't the same thing, but warming patterns can effect our weather.
Does it mean we are going through some huge gloom and doom change?
For the past 100 years, yearly temperatures here in my neck of the woods haven't changed a whole lot.
I mean the averages have pretty much stayed the same.
Yes, until the last couple of years we have had warmer Autumns and milder winters, but most people would say that is a good thing.
Don't say anything just yet....................
We have also had fewer 90+ degrees days so things still average out.
Now comes along the winters of 2007-8 and 2008-9
We have had some serious snow and cold.
2008 was the wettest year ever for us as we measured more than 48 inches of liquid precipitation.
A couple years before, we had some of the worst drought periods.
Warming/cooling, and weather patterns are cyclical.
The atmosphere can hold only so much moisture and it has to rain/snow sometime and somewhere.
In the 1980's Lake Michigan was at an all time high water mark.
2 or 3 years ago it briefly hit an all time low water mark.
Now water levels have climbed a couple of feet, but still below the magic 30 year average.
Why an I bringing this up?
To show you weather patterns and moisture levels can change.
Climate patterns can change, but is it global warming?
I do feel we can alter climates and weather patterns to a certain degree with pollutions and abusing our planet.
But Global Warming?
Just in time for this letter,
Sunday's (Feb. 15) Grand Rapids Press had an article about the Audubon Society, stating that bird counts and movement prove global warming.
Certain birds have moved more while others have moved less over the past 40 years.
That proves global warming.
Wild turkeys (all but extinct and reintroduced in many regions) have moved further North.
Isn't that establishing old territory in the first place?
House finches (introduced to the East) have moved further north.
Bluebirds are more common in Michigan now, than 40 years ago.
I remember when Eastern bluebirds were common and then they were gone.
I'm sure human aid and housing has nothing to do with that.
According to Audubon, loss of habitat or populations expanding had nothing to do with this.
This again shows how topics and research can be manipulated by leaving certain elements out or having an influence on the naive.(got to keep the GRANT MONEY coming in).
I have got to find me a Grant Writer.
It also shows how Certain groups, some scientists, lobbyists, certain politicians, etc look at you and me.
Do we have "CHUMP" stamped on us somewhere?
Like we are this illiterate, ignorant public that follows the "Pied Piper."
Have there been climates changes?
Have there been fluctuations in the weather?
Is earth a living planet?
This letter is a bit long, but not long enough to really approach the subject.
However, sometimes I like to stir the pot.
I like to ask questions to get others thinking and I don't mind if someone raises an eyebrow at me (I do the same thing at our church small group).
I have given some websites to read at later times.
I'm not playing political favors here, that would be suicide.
I am simply stating some ideas, beliefs and showing some facts.
I hope you keep an open mind.
My apologies in advance for not having things down in achronological order, My left handed brain gets ahead of me all to often.
By now you know which way I'm going.
If you don't agree, please take the time to read some and if nothing else, look into the Ice cap part of this.
You ever notice how things don't come out how you want them to?
Well, I have so much to say, but can't fit it all in here.
You my friend are going to do some home work.
Global warming or the new buzz phrase "Climate Change."
I almost bought into it myself
Could we actually be causing global warming?
Maybe to some degree, ....
Everything seems so convincing.
I know we have done some serious damage to habitats (land and water).
Shoot, Lake Erie was on fire at one time.
But global warming?
Now understand, there is a difference in Global warming or climate change and weather conditions.
Though one can affect the other.
After all the chatter of ice caps melting, Polar bears drowning, glaciers melting, etc. along came this from a local meteorologist.
Last December meteorologist "Bill Steffen" mentioned how the polar ice cap has grown and the ice has as much volume as it did in 2002.
Cool I thought.......................
The know it alls are wrong.
Bill even mentioned the
website from the University of Illinois so we could look for ourselves.
Low and behold, now the Polar Ice cap has reached 1979 levels.
That year is significant, because that is when polar records started.
Yes, a whole 30 years of Arctic and Antarctic records and they are ready to say we are doomed.
Yet we don't hear it's only a 30 year report, it sound slike this has been going on for the past 100 years or more.
Why only a small part do we hear?
Since December, I have been researching the subject of global warming in depth and you can find convincing opinions for it, and against it.
But, we never hear the reasons against it.
Again I ask why?
Then the past few week really got my fur standing on end.
It was suggested that global warming was the cause for the jet and goose collision in New york.
The geese didn't migrate because of global warming and open waters.
Look at the picture of the ducks feeding, I have water fowl around here during the winter.
Granted they don't feed in my yard everyday. but they stick around.
Nothing is mentioned, that not all water fowl migrate and waters aren't always frozen.
Nothing is mentioned about the loss of habitat or the huge decline in natural predators that would keep populations in check.
Nothing is mentioned about the mismanagement of hunting. Hunting is big business and hunters want plenty of birds and animals to shoot at.
An example here in Michigan: A century ago, there were maybe 100,000 deer. today that estimate is closer to 1.5 million.
Why, hunting is a multi-million dollar business.
Now, deer are everywhere and get blamed for crop damage and what have you.
Nothing is mentioned as to how nature adapts to its surroundings, just global warming and dooms day.
Another thing that irked me.
I read last week that global warming is the cause for old growth forests in Oregon dieing.
What naturally happens to old plants, animals and people?
They die, it is the natural order and progression of things.
If you've ever seen or had it explained to you the progression of a forest, you know what I mean.
I went to school for forestry and I'm suppose to buy that line?
I'm ticked and I have to speak my mind.
We've all read the gloom and doom, the propaganda reports.
News shows and documentaries (money can do some amazing things).
But are we seeing the whole story?
Remember when the hole in the Ozone was the big thing?
That was so 90's.
Maybe you remember in the 70's when the globe was cooling, or that was the trend then.
Now the world is warming and the shorelines are going to be washed away.
Polar bears are the "Poster Child" for global warming, or is it climate change (they can't make up their mind now days).
The two are always linked together it seems (Buzz words).
Now, is the cap shrinking or growing?
If the cap isn't melting, why all the sad stories about Polar bears drifting off to sea, never to be seen again.
Is this another ploy to gain sympathy from the uneducated public.
Even the same global warming advocates say these pictures don't tell the whole truth.
Polar bears are excellent swimmers and have been known to swim up to 60 miles in the frigid Arctic waters.
Polar bears are in fact increasing in numbers and we are talking a serious increase.
Science Daily reports research is flawed On April 30, U.S. District Judge Claudia Wilken ordered the Interior Department to decide by May 15 whether polar bears should be listed under the provisions of the Endangered Species Act. (Note regarding decision: On May 15, 2008 the Polar bear was listed as a threatened species" under the Endangered Species Act.)
Professor J. Scott Armstrong of the Wharton School says, “To list a species that is currently in good health as an endangered species requires valid forecasts that its population would decline to levels that threaten its viability. In fact, the polar bear populations have been increasing rapidly in recent decades due to hunting restrictions. Assuming these restrictions remain, the most appropriate forecast is to assume that the upward trend would continue for a few years, then level off.
Newsbuster.org reports Newsbusters research Center talks about a Polar bear baby boom occuring
Besides evidence like that, scientists have ignored the anecdotal evidence of the Inuit, who say bear numbers were rising. Inuits also report more polar bears wandering into their towns and villages, where they are a threat to children.
The Inuits (native people) also mention an increase and worry about bears entering their villages.
Why don't we hear about this?
There are more polar bears today than 25 end even 50 years ago.
Don't you know or see what was happening in your back yard?
I sure do.
If someone tells me there aren't cats around here, but I know saw a cat..........
Who am I going to believe, myself, the locals or some so called expert.
I have got to find me a Grant writer.
World reports, climatologist, meteorologists from around the globe swear and testify that Global Warming is all bunk.
Popular stories get headlines and lobbyists get billions of dollars for groups and scientists to study this.
Governments aren't going to hand out money (grants) to people that say things are okay, money is there to spend on so research and it doesn't seem to matter what kind of research.
Computers can be manipulated to project future gloom. To project what some want to hear.
The public buys into gloom it seems, because we listen and believe.
From Flint Journal, to reports from Harvard University, From Canada, the UK, Japan and even reports from Australia (experiencing a record hot summer) indicate that global warming is bunk.
Canada Free Press Timothy Ball, one of the first Canadian Ph.Ds. in Climatology
Believe it or not, Global Warming is not due to human contribution of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This in fact is the greatest deception in the history of science. We are wasting time, energy and trillions of dollars while creating unnecessary fear and consternation over an issue with no scientific justification. For example, Environment Canada brags about spending $3.7 billion in the last five years dealing with climate change almost all on propaganda trying to defend an indefensible scientific position while at the same time closing weather stations and failing to meet legislated pollution targets.
There is that money being spent again.
Politicians are being listened to, even though most of them have no knowledge or understanding of science, especially the science of climate and climate change. Hence, they are in no position to question a policy on climate change when it threatens the entire planet. Moreover, using fear and creating hysteria makes it very difficult to make calm rational decisions about issues needing attention
As Christopher Booker says in his review of 2008, temperatures have been dropping in a wholly unpredicted way over the past year. Last winter, the northern hemisphere saw its greatest snow cover since 1966, which in the northern US states and Canada was dubbed the "winter from hell". This winter looks set to be even worse.
The earth was hotter 1,000 years ago
Evidence from all over the world indicates that the earth was hotter 1,000 years ago than it is today. Research shows that temperatures were higher in what is known as the Mediaeval Warming period than they were in the 1990s.
A report by the UN Environment Program this year claimed that the cause of melting glaciers in the Himalayas was not global warming but the local warming effect of a vast "atmospheric brown cloud" over that region, made up of soot particles from Asia's dramatically increased burning of fossil fuels and deforestation
The Austrailian speaks on facts that debunk global warming alarmism.
This is good.......
At December's U.N. Global Warming conference in Poznan, Poland, 650 of the world's top climatologists stood up and said man-made global warming is a media generated myth without basis. Said climatologist Dr. David Gee, Chairman of the International Geological Congress, "For how many years must the planet cool before we begin to understand that the planet is not warming?"
I asked myself, why would such obviously smart guy say such a ridiculous thing? But it turns out he's right.
The earth's temperature peaked in 1998. It's been falling ever since; it dropped dramatically in 2007 and got worse in 2008, when temperatures touched 1980 levels.
Meanwhile, the University of Illinois' Arctic Climate Research Center released conclusive satellite photos showing that Arctic ice is back to 1979 levels. What's more, measurements of Antarctic ice now show that its accumulation is up 5 percent since 1980.
what was supposed to be massive global warming, the biggest chunks of ice on earth grew larger. Just as an aside, do you remember when the hole in the ozone layer was going to melt Antarctica? But don't worry, we're safe now, that was the nineties.
Dr. Kunihiko, Chancellor of Japan's Institute of Science and Technology said this: "CO2 emissions make absolutely no difference one way or the other ... every scientist knows this, but it doesn't pay to say so." Now why would a learned man say such a crazy thing?
Based on core samples from Russia's Vostok Station in Antarctica, we now know earth's atmosphere and temperature for the last 420,000 years. This evidence suggests that the 12,000 years of warmth we call the Holocene period is over.
Apparently, we're headed into an ice age of about 100,000 years -- give or take. As for CO2 levels, core samples show conclusively they follow the earth's temperature rise, not lead it.
It turns out CO2 fluctuations follow the change in sea temperature. As water temperatures rise, oceans release additional dissolved CO2
The heat and droughts of 2001 and 2002, and the unending winter of 2002-2003 in the Northeast have people wondering what on Earth is happening to the weather. Is there anything natural about such variability?
For example, tree-ring data show that temperatures were warmer than now in many far northern regions from 950 to 1100 A.D.
There is much more, here area few.
Is it possible that so many can be wrong?
Does money play a factor?
Hiccups in the natural order.
Records show that world temperatures maxed out in the late 1990's and are indeed on a slow decline right now.
Why don't we hear about this.
Maybe some of you can remember when global cooling was a topic in the 1970's.
You've seen the reports or the famous pictures of the melting glacier of the Himalaya mountains.
Now that is a true picture, but it doesn't tell the whole story.
There is indeed a smog filled gas cloud that hangs on that side of the mountain causing problems, but according to UN reports, the glaciers on the West side of the mountains are growing, not shrinking.
Why don't we hear about that?
Okay, so there is the gloom and doom of all the ice breaking from Greenland and the Antarctic that is melting and is going to flood all the coastal areas?
As I mentioned before, Antarctic ice is growing thicker.
Research shows once again that earth temperatures and weather patterns vary.
Lets go back in time about 1,000 years or so.
Hop in the time machine and off to Greenland we go.
The mighty Vikings were warriors and explorers.
In 986 AD, Eirik Thorvaldsson, known as Eirik the Red, established settlements on Greenland. Several years later his son Leiv Eiriksson left Greenland to only to discover Canada.
Now why would they give it the name Greenland and why would any one settle on a chunk of ice?
Indeed, 1,000 years ago, Greenland was much warmer. It was for the next 300 years and the Vikings enjoyed life on Greenland.
Not until the climate changed did the Norwegians abandon Greenland.
Then, came the mini ice age period from 1300 AD to about 1900 AD.
Why isn't this in all the reports?
No, all we hear about is Greenland's ice shelf melting and the shores will be flooded soon.
Where is a grant writer when I need one?
Scientists have taken core samples from ice, caves, trees and soil. Results show an over whelming records that carbon was much more prevalent throughout earth history and at times fluctuates.
Why not, earth is a living planet and adjusts, just like we must adjust.
Still, things aren't mentioned on why the planet Mars ice caps that freeze and thaw every year and there isn't man made pollution on them.
Global warming advocates fail to mention Solar patterns that have effects on earth.
While the earth seems to always have volcanic activity, the last Major Volcano eruption was in 1991 (Pinatubo).
The soot and other particles play a factor on weather.
Why don't we hear about that.
Another researcher suggests that a majority of the carbon dioxide is released from the ocean when the waters warm.
Now that makes sense to me.
Decaying plant and animal life heats up as it decays (compost piles). That warms the water and releases carbon gas.
Very little is mentioned on water vapors.
Methane gas is 5 times more damaging then carbon dioxide and the earth releases this naturally, not to mention from our dumps and animal waste.
A vast majority of Climatologists and Meteorologists believe in the natural order of things, and now more than ever so do I.
Cycles you might say.
History and records show fluctuation in temperatures and weather. Prior to the mini ice age there was a warm up.
In the 1930's records show this to be the warmest period in recent times with records highs being set and massive Arctic melting.
In fact, 4 of the 10 hottest years on record where in the 1930's with 1934 being the warmest.
Geologists suggest that about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago the northern hemisphere was encased in glacial ice and as it receded and melted, much of our geography is the result, including my Great Lakes.
Before that, much of the land was tropical or sub-tropical. Fossil evidense shows this to be the case.
A final statement from Bill Steffen.
Save it and read it when you have the time.
"I have been a TV meteorologist for over 34 years…my degree is from the Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison – double major, Physical Geography.
My observation is that TV meteorologists are more skeptical of two things…first the total emphasis on man/C02 to the almost total exclusion of anything else in this climate debate….and second the nightmarish scenarios that dominate media coverage and a very vocal part of academia. We are skeptical of these computer models, partly because we do deal with them on a daily basis and know their math and therefore their limitations…but we are also skeptical of some of the modelers who have a financial and political interest in policy decisions that would result from action taken in response to their alarm. TV meteorologists are not beholden to big oil/industry or to the government grants and far-left policies that drive many of the alarmists. We do think the Earth is warming…that there are a number of reasons for this. I think that TV meteorologists are in general more conservative/skeptical people. Conservatives tend to go into business and engineering, liberals to government and media, conservative meteorologists to broadcasting.
There is little talk about solar cycles (there are articles discussing the shrinking of the polar ice caps on Mars and the moons of Jupiter). There hasn’t been a decent volcano since Pinatubo in ’91…less volcanic dust means more solar radiation reaching the ground. Dozens of Arctic stations across the Dew Line in northern Canada (remember, to warn us if the Russians sent ICBMs over the Pole) were closed. Russia has also closed stations…that in a small way is going to upset the balance of ground stations that become the base for the computer models. Temperatures are only measured accurately over about 14% of the globe. Where these temperatures are measured most accurately (the U.S.), the warming is less pronounced. Over the oceans we rely on IR satellites. I can show you IR pictures from Lake Michigan that are 5 degrees off the actual surface temperature of the water. Methane is a five-times more potent greenhouse gas than CO2…but has no political consequences, so it’s hardly considered. There are MANY thermometer sites that were in cooler, rural – forested environments 50 years ago that are now sitting amid concrete and asphalt. These thermometers will be giving warmer readings now.
We as a group (and there are many of us) resent when the media announces that “no credible scientist denies that global warming is going to kill us all…etc, etc”. That is a total untruth and reporters who word their pieces that way are either ignorant or biased.
I can show you comments from Hansen back around 1990 when he said that he’d looked at every temperature and there was no warming going on…was he wrong then (and if so why should we trust him now)? The world worships Al Gore…heck, he’s got the hurricane rotating backwards on the poster for his movie! He has no meteorological training, yet he’s given instant credibility over PhDs.
If you look at the data for my town (Grand Rapids) there is hardly a difference between temperatures 100 years ago and now. We have had warmer late falls and winters of late…but we have also had FEWER 90-degree days in the last 10 years than at practically any time in the last century. Most people and animals would prefer a slightly warmer climate. We go to Florida on vacation, not Baffin Island! A longer growing season would be a positive, not a negative. The positive aspects of a small (and less than 2-degrees is small…we used to have palm trees growing in Grand Rapids) temperature rise are never discussed.
If these people really cared about the planet, they’d find a way to address the growing C02 problem coming out countries like China (40% of the growth in C02 is China!), India, Indonesia, Brazil, etc. It’s only the U.S. that has to shut down industry and drive weenie-mobiles.
Climatic variability is the natural norm and I remain unconvinced that man/C02 is a greater danger to me than mad dictators with nukes."
My thoughts and opinions.
At one time I had my concerns and almost bought into the idea of global warming.
It was difficult to believe, but so much convincing stuff was bombarding me.
Yet, through all this were the words of several meteorologists and other scientists that kept saying the temperatures and weather patterns are cyclical.
Global warming had nothing to do with it and in fact there is no such REAL BEAST as global warming like the dowms dayers want you to believe.
Even lake levels rise and fall.
Yet there is the media attack on global warming.
Man made agendas.
Money to be made and had if you can say the right things
Can people effect the weather and climate change?
To some degree I think we can. and I think the gas cloud hanging over the hymalaya mountain top can bear witness.
I think we can have more adverse effects on climate and weather patterns by stripping the lands and altering the terrien through deforsetation and altering landscapes.
I do feel that removing rain forests, prairies and savannahs can alter weather patterns. Areas feel drought where rain was plentiful or normal amounts could be expected. Hurricanes and tornadoes can be more severe to some extent.
Scorching winds can blow across an area that never experienced it before.
The skies can open up and floods happen.
Snow in the desert...................
Is this from man, or nature taking its course?
Global warming or climate change?
Maybe "Nature" is taking its course.
All of these climate and weather patterns have happened before recorded history and well before TV and radio could report.
The President gets a sliver and we know about it before it happens.
Populations are much larger now so devistation is much greater then even 50 years ago and we hear about it.
To say we are the cause of global warming............
And much more play a roll.
Earth is a living planet and our "Creator" made it this way.
Do you think for one moment, God didn't put in to plan for earth to adjust to the hiccups as earth goes through growing pains and to adjust for human stupidity.
Living things adapt and adjust, creation and universal laws dictate that.
History shows that earth does indeed go through adjustments and that means climate change as well.
Call it global warming if you want to, but what was it before hand?
As several scientists mention, "natural effects don't pay the bills or bring in the government grant money".
I've got to get me one of those grants.
Negative news seems to be the more popular news a majority of the time.
As long as we sit back and say or do nothing, negaitive reports and illiterate thinking will run rampent and run our lives.
You are to smart to allow that to happen, however.
Yes, we can alter the weather to some degree and if we didn't care, who knows what the planet would look like by now.
Nature and our planet are very forgiving and very much alive, Respect all of it.
If you and I go about living responsible, there should be no worries.
Based on a 30 year record of Polar ice and now the last couple of years seem to be prooving the know-it-alls wrong.
Climate change and weather are adjusting once again.
Here in Michigan, temperatures have been cooler and we are going through the second and third snowiest winters in (Kent County) Michigan's recorded history the past 2 years.
Yes, we have had fewer 90 degree days as well.
I will take the rain, who knows what the following years will give us.
I am aware of droughts in certain parts of the United Satates and the Globe.
I am aware of record heat and cold.
But records only go back a blink of an eye.
Can we base a whole planet's fate on that?
That is what the so called experts are saying.
Research and read..............
Make your own decissions.
My job here was to stir the pot some.
Maybe wake a few people up.
Look into both sides of any story.
Make you think some.
Leave out one fact or part of a photo and a whole story can change.
Glaciers come and go.
I think most of us realize the weather the past 2 years doesn't show global warming.
Did anything show global warming?
Frosts in Florida, Massive snows along the pacific northwest, Snows in Europe and other places that rarely experience snow.
Global warming advocates will tell you that weather extremes are part of the warming.
Torrnadoes, hurricanes, snow and record cold.....all part of global warming.
Can you predict weather patterns?
The Jet Stream?
Sunshine, clouds, rain, snow?
Can we help our environment?
Sure we can.
We are meant to be stewards of this planet and that is where we need to stand together.
Helping and protecting.
Then we may hear "Well done good and faithful servant."
I like clean land and water.
I enjoy the wildlife.
We see how the natural world adapts and can thrive.
We also see how we can destroy it.
The boreal forests of the northern hemisphere (the top 1/3 of the NH) produce enough oxygen for all of life on the planet.
These same trees absorb carbin dioxide.
Now for the rest of the worlds plant life .......
Must provide bonus oxygen.
The real danger would be if people continued to strip the forests and land like they were 100 years ago.
Trash our waterways etc.
We must put our efforts into something positive.
I got to find me a Grant Writer. (Yes there are people out there that are paid to write grant applications for others.)
God isn't so dumb........... earth and evrything on it is carbon based.
Pretty smart, take a chemical and base all of life around it, nice and easy for him.
So why wouldn't CO2 be every where?
Even NASA realizes all life is carbon based and if NASA says it's so.............
Leave a carbon foot print, why not..........after all, it is a carbon based world.
I hope you leave with an open mind to this topic and others that matter.
Things we can make a difference in.
I hope you walk away from this with a new and different perspective.
Facts don't lie.
Please share this with others.
I hope we are still friends :-)
Forgive me any mistakes, a lot of time went into this and I am whooped.
Forgive me if I haven't made my point.
Before I go, here is your positive thought of the week.
Face your deficiencies and acknowledge them; but do not let them master you. Let them teach you patience, sweetness, insight.
-- Helen Keller (1880-1968) American Writer
You have to love and admire this woman.
Wouldn't you have loved to have known her and spent some time with her?
She could face her defiencies and limitations.
She was able to move on and conquer so much, yet no one would've said a word to her if she stayed a frail ball of nothing.
We can learn so much from others if we allow ourselves to do so.
We can learn even more from giants like Helen Keller.
I need to learn some patience for sure.
You don't have to get it right the first time, just get it going.
A simple smile can be like baby's first step.
Step into a new world of love, trust, faith.
Step into a new friendship.
Smiles are magical.
So are you.
Until next time my friend.
I need to learn some patience for sure.
"Treat the earth well:
It was not given to you by your parents,
It was loaned to you by your children.
We do not inherit the Earth from our
Ancestors, we borrow it from our Children."
Ancient Indian Proverb
Your friend indeed,
PS. If you enjoy these letters, please forward them to friends, family and co-workers. Better yet, have them sign up so they can recieve their own letters.
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